Diet :: Medications :: Exercise :: Surgery


Weight loss can be achieved by creating a calorie deficit, which means consuming fewer calories than you burn. However, it's important to ensure that you're still getting all the essential nutrients your body needs.

Here are some general guidelines for a healthy weight loss diet:

  • Reduce calorie intake: To lose weight, you need to create a calorie deficit by reducing your calorie intake. You can do this by decreasing portion sizes, choosing lower-calorie foods, and limiting high-calorie foods.
  • Choose nutrient-dense foods: Nutrient-dense foods are high in nutrients but relatively low in calories. Focus on eating whole, minimally processed foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein sources, and healthy fats.
  • Limit highly processed foods: Processed foods are often high in calories, sugar, and unhealthy fats, and low in nutrients. Avoid or limit foods such as sugary drinks, fast food, fried foods, and snacks like chips and candy.
  • Increase protein intake: Protein can help you feel fuller for longer, which can reduce overall calorie intake. Aim for lean protein sources such as chicken, fish, beans, and legumes.
  • Stay hydrated: Drinking enough water can help you feel full and may reduce calorie intake. Aim for at least 8 cups of water per day.
  • Be mindful of portion sizes: Even healthy foods can contribute to weight gain if you eat too much of them. Use smaller plates, measure your food, and be mindful of serving sizes.
  • Incorporate physical activity: Regular physical activity can help burn calories and boost weight loss. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week

A healthy weight loss diet should be sustainable and enjoyable. Instead of focusing on restrictive diets or quick fixes, aim for long-term lifestyle changes that you can maintain over time.


There are medications available that can aid in weight loss, but it's important to note that they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and in combination with lifestyle changes such as healthy eating and physical activity. Here are some commonly prescribed medications for weight loss:

  • Orlistat: Orlistat works by blocking the absorption of dietary fat in the intestines, which can reduce calorie intake. It's typically prescribed for people with a BMI over 30 or those with a BMI over 27 and a weight-related health condition such as diabetes.
  • Phentermine: Phentermine is a stimulant that can help reduce appetite and increase metabolism. It's usually prescribed for short-term use in people with a BMI over 30 or those with a BMI over 27 and a weight-related health condition.
  • Bupropion and naltrexone: This combination medication works by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness. It's typically prescribed for people with a BMI over 30 or those with a BMI over 27 and a weight-related health condition.
  • Liraglutide: Liraglutide is a medication originally used to treat diabetes, but it has also been approved for weight loss. It works by slowing down the emptying of the stomach and reducing appetite. It's typically prescribed for people with a BMI over 30 or those with a BMI over 27 and a weight-related health condition.
  • Semaglutide: Semaglutide is a medication originally used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it has also been approved for weight loss. It works by mimicking the effects of a hormone (GLP-1), which helps regulate appetite and blood sugar levels. Semaglutide is injected once a week, typically in the stomach, thigh, or upper arm with dosing instructions provided by your healthcare provider. Although semaglutide can aid in weight loss, it's not a substitute for healthy eating and physical activity. It's important to make lifestyle changes and use semaglutide as part of a comprehensive weight loss plan.

Weight loss medications may have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone, so it is important to discuss your options with your doctor.


Regular exercise is an important component of a healthy weight loss plan. Here are some types of exercises that can be effective for weight loss:

  • Cardiovascular exercise: Cardiovascular exercise, also known as cardio, is any exercise that raises your heart rate and gets you breathing harder. This can include activities such as brisk walking, running, cycling, swimming, or dancing. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity cardio per week.
  • Strength training: Strength training, also known as resistance training, involves using weights, resistance bands, or your own body weight to build muscle. Muscle tissue burns more calories than fat tissue, so building muscle can help boost your metabolism and aid in weight loss. Aim for at least two strength training sessions per week, targeting all major muscle groups.
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT): HIIT involves alternating periods of high-intensity exercise with periods of rest or lower-intensity exercise. This can include activities such as sprinting, jumping jacks, or burpees. HIIT has been shown to be effective for burning calories and improving cardiovascular fitness in a shorter amount of time than traditional cardio.
  • Low-impact exercise: Low-impact exercises, such as walking, cycling, or swimming, can be a good option for people who have joint pain or are just starting out with exercise. These activities still provide cardiovascular benefits and can aid in weight loss.

The key to weight loss through exercise is consistency. Aim to incorporate regular exercise into your routine and gradually increase the intensity and duration over time. It is also important to combine exercise with a healthy diet for optimal weight loss results.


Weight loss surgery, also known as bariatric surgery, is a surgical procedure that can aid in weight loss for people with obesity. Here are some things to know about weight loss surgery:

  • Types of weight loss surgery: There are several types of weight loss surgery, including gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Each procedure has its own risks and benefits, and the choice of procedure will depend on factors such as the patient's health status and weight loss goals.
  • Eligibility criteria: Weight loss surgery is typically recommended for people with a BMI over 40, or those with a BMI over 35 and weight-related health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. Candidates for weight loss surgery will also need to undergo a thorough medical evaluation to determine if they are healthy enough for surgery.
  • Weight loss results: Weight loss surgery can result in significant weight loss, but the amount of weight lost will vary depending on the procedure and the individual. Studies have shown that people can lose up to 60-80% of their excess weight within the first two years after surgery.
  • Potential risks: Weight loss surgery is a major surgical procedure and carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and blood clots. There may also be long-term complications such as malnutrition, gastrointestinal problems, and gallstones. It's important to discuss the risks and benefits of weight loss surgery with a healthcare provider.
  • Lifestyle changes are still necessary: Weight loss surgery is not a quick fix and still requires lifelong commitment to healthy eating and physical activity. Patients will need to make significant lifestyle changes to maintain their weight loss and improve their overall health.

Weight loss surgery can be an effective option for people with obesity who have not been able to lose weight through other methods. However, it's important to carefully consider the risks and benefits and discuss them with a healthcare provider to determine if weight loss surgery is the right choice for you.